- 1 in 100 pregnancies.
- True cysts are derived from the embryological remnants of either the allantois or the omphalomesenteric duct and are typically located towards the fetal insertion of the cord.
- Pseudocysts are more common than true cysts and are located anywhere along the cord. They have no epithelial lining and represent localized edema and liquefaction of Wharton’s jelly.
- Single cysts are usually transient with no adverse effect.
- Multiple cysts are associated with increased risk of miscarriage, trisomies 18 and 13, omphalocele, VACTREL association and fetal growth restriction.
- Detailed ultrasound examination.
- Fetal karyotyping for non-isolated cases.
- Isolated cases: normal prognosis.
- Isolated cases: no increased risk of recurrence.
- Part of trisomies: 1%.