- 1 in 1,200 births.
- Spectrum of features involving extremities, craniofacial region and trunk, which may be isolated or appear in combination. Demonstration of bands in not necessary for the diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome.
- Extremities: absent digits or portions of limbs, swollen distal arm or leg resulting from constrictive amniotic bands.
- Craniofacial region: facial cleft, asymmetric microphthalmia, severe nasal deformity, encephalocele.
- Trunk: severe spinal deformities, large abdominal wall defects with herniated intestine. The most extreme manifestation is body stalk anomaly.
- The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities or genetic syndromes is not increased.
- Detailed ultrasound examination.
- Ultrasound scans every 2-3 weeks to assess the evolving consequences of the bands.
- In a few cases fetoscopic lysis of the bands has been used in cases of constriction of the umbilical cord or threatened limb amputations.
- Place: hospital with neonatal intensive care and facilities for pediatric surgery.
- Prognosis and treatment depends on the nature of amniotic band syndrome and the severity of deformation. Facial deformities often require extensive reconstructive procedures.
- Body stalk anomaly is lethal.
- No increased risk of recurrence.